Electricity prices are rising steadily. To your life was comfortable both in the hot summer and frosty winter, you should either spend a lot of money on electricity, or look for an alternative source of energy. In developed countries, solar energy, water and wind have long been used. This is a natural source of food, for which you do not have to pay. A rather popular way to get energy is a windmill using wind to generate electricity - a wind generator.
Russia is a fairly large country with flat territories. Despite the fact that in many places mostly slow winds, there are regions heavily blown by powerful air currents. So why not use this advantage on the farm? All that's required is to spend the time and money to make a homemade wind generator. The windmill will fully pay for itself in just a few months. We will consider 2 types of wind generators that can be made by hand.
Rotor type wind turbine
To begin with, we will consider how to make a simple design of a rotary heliogenerator. With a simple start it's easier, and you'll understand the principle of work. This type of wind generator is suitable for owners of a small garden house. Use the made windmill for a large cottage will not work, due to the low power of the wind generator.
But the windmill can easily cope with the fact that in the evening to ensure the light of business premises, to illuminate the garden path porch, etc. Let's take a detailed look at how to make such a wind generator with their own hands.
Advantages and disadvantages of the rotor wind generator
When the wind generator is done as it should, it will function without any errors. With a 75A rechargeable battery and a good 1000 W inverter, the windmill will easily provide the street with a light, a home pad, alarms, video surveillance, etc.
Wind turbines of this type have the following advantages:
- simplicity of installation;
- a small cost price;
- compliance to repair;
- not fastidious to the conditions of functioning;
- reliability and quiet operation.
There are several wind generator minuses:
- small capacity of wind turbine;
- complete dependence of the windmill on the wind;
- The blade can break the airflow.
Preparation of materials for wind turbine
The first step is to collect all the consumables and parts for the windmill. The wind generator you make will produce no more than 1.5 kW. To make the unit you need to have:
- 12 V car generator.
- Helium or acid battery at 12 V.
- Special converter from 12 V to 220 V and from 700 W to 1500 W.
- Large capacity of stainless steel or aluminum: bucket or pan.
- A simple voltmeter.
- Bolts, washers and nuts.
- The battery charge relay is from the car and the charge indicator lamp.
- Wires with different cross-sections (2.5 mm2 and 4 mm2).
- Clamps fixing the wind generator.
- Switch "button" semi-hermetic, at 12 V.
In addition, stock up on these tools:
- a Bulgarian or scissors for metal;
- tape measure;
- building pencil or marker;
- a screwdriver, a drill, nippers and a drill.
Design work of the wind generator
The job is to make the rotor and convert the pulley of the generator. The stages are as follows:
- Prepare a bucket or pan.
- Using a tape measure and a marker, make a markup by dividing the container into 4 identical parts.
- Now you need to cut the blades.
- From the bottom of the bucket and in the pulley mark the place where the holes will be. They screw in the bolts. Do not rush, do everything smoothly, as the rotation may cause imbalance. Then make the holes.
- Now bend the blades. Just do not forget to take into account in which direction the generator is spinning.
- The angle of the blade bending affects the area that the wind will meet. This directly affects the speed and speed of the wind turbine.
- Using bolts, fasten the bucket to the pulley.
- Install your wind generator on the mast, securing it with clamps.
- It remains to connect the wires and collect the chain.
- On the mast, fix the wires so that they do not hang.
To connect the battery, take the wires with a cross section of 4 mm2. The recommended size is no more than 1 m. And thanks to wires with 2.5 mm2 Connect the lights and instruments. Do not forget to install the inverter (converter). Connect the device to the network to contacts No. 7 and No. 8, shown in the diagram below. Use 4 mm wires2.
That's all, now your wind generator is ready for work. It can not but rejoice that he made his own hands.
Wind generator of axial construction on magnets
At the heart of such a 220v wind turbine, lies the hub from the passenger car, which has brake discs. If the part is not new, disassemble it, check and lubricate the bearings, and also clean the rust.
We distribute and fix the magnets
First, you need to glue the magnets onto the rotor disk. In this case, the magnets used are not ordinary, but special neodymium magnets. They are much more powerful. It will take 20 magnets, the size of which is 25 by 8 mm. Magnets are placed with alternating poles. For the correct arrangement, make a template, as shown in the photo below.
To fix the magnets on the disc, use silicate glue. And for strength at the end, you can pour magnets with epoxy resin. To avoid leaking resin, make plasticine curbs or wrap tape around the tape.
Three-phase and single-phase generator for wind turbines
If we compare them, then the device with one phase is worse, because with the load it vibrates due to the difference in the amplitude of the current. And it appears because of the volatility of the current. In three-phase products this effect is absent. Their power is always the same. The thing is that one phase compensates the other and vice versa, if in one phase the current is gone, then in another phase it will increase.
What is the result? And the fact that three-phase generators have a return of 50% more than single-phase generators. In addition, pleases and the lack of vibration, which can annoy and affect comfort. Working under heavy load, the stator will not be buzzing. If noise does not prevent you, and you decide to use a single-phase generator, be prepared for the fact that vibration will negatively affect the operation of the wind generator. The period of its operation will be less.
Very fast wind turbine can not be named. It is required to do everything so that the 12 V battery gets infected from 100-140 rpm. With such initial data, the total number of turns in the coils should be 1000-1200. But how do you know how many turns there are per coil? It's simple: this number is divided by the number of coils.
If you want the wind generator to produce more power at low rpm, you need to make more poles. In this case, the frequency of the current oscillation in the coil will increase. To reduce the resistance and increase the current resistance, we recommend that a thick wire is wound around the coils. Take into account the fact that with a strong voltage, the winding resistance can "eat" current.
Note that the number and thickness of the magnets that are attached to the disks determine the operating parameters of the generator. To find out what power a wind generator can produce, wind one coil and rotate the generator. Measure the voltage at some revolutions without load. For example, at 200 rpm you got a current of 30 V with a resistance of 3 ohms. Take away from these 30 V 12 V (battery voltage). Now divide the number, which turned out to be 3 ohms. It looks like this:
30 - 12 = 18;
18: 3 = 6.
In the end, it turned out 6 A. They will go to the battery. It is clear that in practice there will be a little less because of the losses in the wires.
The coils should be more stretched. Then copper in the sector will be more, and the turns will be straight. The diameter of the hole inside the coil should be equal to the size of the magnets or slightly exceed it.
The form for the stator can be plywood. But the sectors for the coils can be placed on paper, making a plasticine curb. The coils must be fixed so that they do not move, and the ends of the phases are brought out. Connect all wires with a star or a triangle. It remains to test the wind generator, rotating it with his hand.
We make a screw and a mast for a wind generator
The mast for the veragenerator should be high, from 8 to 12 m. The base must be concreted. The fastening is best done so that the pipe can easily be lifted and lowered by a winch. A wind turbine screw will be attached to the top of the pipe.
You can make it from a plastic pipe Ø160 mm. From it, cut out a screw with six blades, a length of 2 m.
To remove the screw from a strong gust of wind, make a folding tail. As a result, all the energy that the wind generator generates can accumulate in the battery.
That's all, you know, how to make a wind generator on magnets. Now you can use the electricity generated by such a wind generator, saving your money. All your efforts will be rewarded.
From this article you learned how to make a wind generator with your own hands, yes not one but two kinds. It is these wind generators that owners love and use for country houses. As you can see, each wind generator is good in something and it's not hard to make it.
If you live in an area with strong winds, you will see how much less electricity bills became due to the wind generator. Such a windmill on the farm will never be superfluous. Additionally we suggest you to watch a video how to make such a wind generator.
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