Lighting the site is a very important part of any landscape. It is important on busy roads and in small courtyards, so any country house or villa should be equipped with light sources so that the optical visibility in the dark is high. Previously, used monotonous lights, placed on different sides of the street.
Now among the presented assortment it is possible to choose that type of illumination which is most suitable for characteristics and cost. Usually, the owners of country houses are choosing their own type, such as LED street lighting fixtures. In this article, the most common types of street lights will be presented, as well as advice on lighting choices.
Criteria for selection and requirements for street lighting sources
Street lighting is much different from the interior, because it is completely differently installed, operated under different conditions, has a different design and purpose. Here, the color index is not so important, the light output comes to the fore. This indicator is the ratio of the light flux to the lamp power.
Another particularly important indicator is the service life of the light source, since replacement of a street lamp is a laborious task, it is better to choose one that will last a long time without replacement.
Street lighting is installed in accordance with the norms of SNiP:
- To illuminate parks and footpaths, you need to use diffused light fixtures. For this, special plafonds are produced, which scatter the outgoing light.
- Objects of an informational type are highlighted by floodlights.
- Decorative function performs facade lighting or landscape lights, which illuminate houses, sculptures, arbors and other objects. This is done with the help of spotlights or special lanterns.
Lamps for lighting the site are selected, taking into account the following nuances:
- Features of the climate in the illuminated area
- Need to illuminate the road or path
- The influence of the environment on light sources
- The need to highlight more saturated areas
- Features of mounting light sources
- So street lamps work in conditions of the raised humidity and sharp change of temperatures, it is necessary to try to choose such models which are equipped by a high level of protection. It shows how much the luminaire is protected from falling into various types of atmospheric pollution.
Find out what external protection is possible from the passport of the purchased lamp. It consists of two digits, the first of which speaks of protection from foreign bodies, the second - about protection from moisture.
Classification of street lamps
At the moment, the market presents a huge number of street lamps from a wide variety of materials. Also, you can choose a lamp for the style that distinguishes the site. You can also choose a luminaire with a sensor, so as not to bother with a constant on and off. The most important separation is according to the criterion, which light source is installed.
This is the most well-known type of light source. Their work is performed by incandescent filaments in an inert gas inside the bulb. They have a fairly high light and heat output, but the cost of energy consumption is not very economical, in contrast, for example, from outdoor LED fixtures.
One of the subspecies of incandescent lamps is halogen, which inside have halogen pairs, allowing the lamp to be operated for a longer time. By adding this gas, these light sources can work much longer and better. Applicable for home and street.
In them, the source of light is fuel in gaseous form, which as a result of combustion gives an electrical discharge. The main substance can be methane, natural gas, or any other suitable form of gas.
They have their positive moments and minuses. Among the advantages are:
- Have a work with high efficiency of about 150 lm / W, which makes it possible to use them for lighting the suburban area.
- Thanks to a long service life, usually ranging from 3 to 20 thousand hours, you can not worry about the need to replace often burnt out lamps.
- The high quality of color rendering allows the use of gas-discharge lamps for facade and other decorative lighting.
The street lamp with such a lamp has its drawbacks, which do not affect their use for lighting the site:
- Noisy operation of the start-up system
- Flickering light
- Exit when spoiling the bulb of harmful substances, such as mercury. But this is not important with external use, besides, the bulbs of these lamps are vandal-resistant and are made, as a rule, of high-quality material, characterized by strength.
In turn, among gas discharge lamps, we can distinguish:
Their work is based on the formation of an electrical discharge inside a bulb in a pair of heavy metals. All processes inside occur through the lamp starting apparatus. That is, the lamp gradually flares up, the duration of this process is determined by external conditions. For example, in colder weather, the lamp flares up more slowly.
One of the drawbacks of a mercury lamp is the constant increase in pressure during operation. This means that in order for the lamp to work again, it must cool down, and as lamps are used in the dark, they cool down just the day.
Also, the voltage in the network has a very strong effect on their operation, and if it is insufficient, it may simply not light up or completely go out.
A bright white light appears from the discharge inside the lamp. It appears because the walls inside it are covered with a special substance - an ultraviolet converter.
Despite all these drawbacks, mercury-based light sources can save a good budget if used for street lighting on poles.
Metal halogen lamps
These light sources have halides in addition to mercury. Their addition makes it possible to correct the spectrum. These lamps are very powerful and have high light transmission, which allows them to be used for huge spaces. Their light does not have a blue hue, it's close to daylight. Over time, metal halogen lamps can change their color characteristics.
They work from the discharge, which is formed inside the lamp in a sodium medium. They differ in that they have low spectrum characteristics and can be used only for lighting areas. Their lighting is a calm yellow light, which can be found on most streets. On light transmission, sodium lamps are very good, but their drawback is that they are very dependent on environmental conditions. To reduce exposure, sodium lamps are placed in special flasks.
These are lamps, the source of light in which is a special arc that burns between two tungsten electrodes. Inside there is an inert gas, together with a pair of different metals and salts. The lamp can have a different spectrum, depending on the internal content. Inside, the gas is enriched with ions, and it passes into a state of plasma, which differs in that it conducts a very good current.
These lamps have very good light output and they last much longer. They used to flare up and flicker for a long time, but now electronic types are produced that do not have all these problems, besides they have become more economical and compact.
Fluorescent lamps are the best suited for street lighting, because frequent on and off switchings inside the room greatly reduce their lifespan. A fluorescent lamp is arranged in this way: mercury vapor exists between the electrodes at two ends. As a result of their interaction, an electric current is produced, which creates ultraviolet radiation. Due to the internal coating of the lamp by the phosphor, this radiation is converted into a glow visible by a person. Thanks to the phosphor, the shade of light changes.
Lamps on solar batteries
This is a very economical way of consuming electricity. Such lighting can be used not only for house lighting, but also for creating large-scale accents in landscape design.
Also, these lamps are convenient because you do not need to constantly turn them on and off, as they start to flare up in low light and turn off when it's light outside.
LED - this is a small lamp, to create a full-fledged flashlight, they are mounted on a special board. For each card, a set of optical type lenses is installed, which are designed to focus the light emanating from the LEDs and direct it to the right place. Very convenient street console LED lights, which, thanks to the bracket, can be adjusted.
These are modern types that are used for a variety of purposes and are great for outdoor lighting. For street conditions, LED lights are made in aluminum casings, which are coated with a special anti-corrosion compound to prevent their damage. A street LED console lamp is able to illuminate a large area, so you can save on their quantity.
Check for strength of such lighting is shown in the video:
Types of street lamps in appearance
Street lamps can be of a variety of types. Depending on the direction in which the light flux looks, one can distinguish:
- Street lights of park or classical type
- Energy-saving luminaires attached to poles
- In the form of spheres, which consist of a support and a plafond in the form of a ball. Another name for them is the street ball. They favorably differ from other types in that light is evenly distributed on all sides. The plafond is executed with a matte or glossy coating, which also serves to display light.
- Bollards - sources of street lighting, made of stone, polished metal or plastic. They act as landscape lights.
- Lamps working on the principle of reflected light. They look like a hollow tube from which light comes, and a reflector is installed on top. Such lights are perfect for lighting the garden or paths on the site.
- Street wall lamps are light sources with the possibility of fixing on a vertical or horizontal surface. Their main goal is decorative landscape lighting.
- Searchlight. They are used to illuminate a large area or highlight certain parts of the garden or plot.
Street lighting is an integral part of any suburban area and they are needed not only for security purposes in the dark, but also to decorate the garden, to give a more comfortable and cozy atmosphere. Now the market has a huge number of street lights, which are divided into species, so among the variety, you can easily choose those that suit in all parameters and cost.
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