The use of natural materials in the arrangement of houses and apartments has long become a classic of the genre. But, unlike wood, stone processing at home, without the use of powerful stone-cutting machines, requires great physical strength, patience and knowledge of the fundamentals of the technology of manual stone processing. The frightening hardness of the surface of natural stone is not so terrible if you use modern equipment for stone processing and technological secrets of processing natural stone, which are hundreds and thousands of years old.
Depth of stone surface treatment
The texture of natural stone can have an exquisitely beautiful pattern, which can be opened only as a result of accurately verified multi-transitional processing and surface grinding. In fact, this is the main reason for using manual processing of natural stone. Traditionally, there are four main options for processing the treated surface:
- Chopped or chopped surface looks like a natural cleavage, formed during the splitting of a monolithic massif. Most often, stone slabs with a chopped plane are used for finishing the basement parts of the building and fencing;
- Coarsely ground surface. In contrast to the previous version, the material is given an accurate geometric shape during machining, an even, but rather rough surface. The coarse grinding stone is used for pavers and building blocks, for erecting fences, fences, curbs and steps of the porch;
- Matt or glossy surface is obtained by polishing without removing the plane mirror. A stone with a smooth but not shiny face is used in 90% of the cases of facing and finishing works of buildings;
- Polished surface Used for sculptures, monuments and decoration of individual elements of the facades of the building.
Completely manual stone processing at home is usually delayed by days and weeks of heavy, monotonous labor, so a more competent solution will be the use of available materials and power tools, especially for finishing works.
At home, you can make a simple paving or a rough countertop for a table in the yard, if you know the characteristics of the rock and its structure. The simplest in processing are sandstones, silicates and calcites. Low hardness makes it relatively easy to give the stone an exact geometric shape, but, except for a semi-grinded grinding, such rocks are rarely subjected to further processing.
The easiest way is to make the facing for the fence or the socle of the house from the widespread calcined sandstone, better known as the stone-bugle. He got his name for the ability to easily split into relatively even, identical tiles a few dozen centimeters in size. Such a tile should be polished with large river sand to smooth irregularities to a minimum, and you can lay out the basement or yard of the house.
How to process a stone with your own hands, ways and methods of processing
The standard set of technological methods for the manual processing of stone materials has not changed for many years:
- Sticking or disassembling a stone massif, large blocks, boulders or seams into smaller and lighter parts that are easier to carry and handle. This is the most difficult stage, since competent processing of natural stone will reduce the cost of sawing and exclude splitting of material on non-calculated trajectories;
- Pre-leveling of the stone surface by kneading the plane with a hand-cutting tool, or using stone working machines;
- Rough or wet grinding of the surface with the help of heavy cast iron slabs or self-made grinding boards made of soft stone rocks or fumed oak. After the completion of this operation, a practically finished product with unpolished or "closed" surface is obtained.
- Polishing the face of the stone. Further grinding is performed as an artistic treatment of a stone, at this stage it is important not only to get a mirror, but also to see and display a pattern or pattern of the surface.
For domestic stone processing, you can use a conventional electric tool, but any grinding and sawing work should be done under the hood, as the stone dust and abrasive not only affect the respiratory system, but also can accumulate on brushes, open gears and gears. In the same way, the processing of artificial stone is performed.
Sawing and nailing in the home
The most traditional way of dividing a stone massif into separate layers is the study. For further processing, flat and defect-free layers from 5 to 10 cm in thickness are required. In order to split such a piece, holes in the stone mass are drilled successively to a depth not less than the thickness of the cleaved piece, after which a cutting line is successively punched with a chisel and a hammer. After a while, the stone splits.
In the industry, a diamond tool is used for processing stone, most often the cut-off strata are cut with cast-iron discs with diamond powders. At home, a stone bed can be split into separate blocks according to the traditional scheme. To do this, initially with the help of a grinder, a cut diamond disc is cut through the cutting line with a cutting depth of 15-20 mm. Further, it is necessary to lay the plate on two supports from the oak bar so that the groove is above the far support. It remains to lay on the sawed pine sawn and hit the hammer hard on the line of separation.
Small blocks in size, from which the lining or pavers will be made in the future, can be pricked with a conventional hammer with a winning tap.
Methods of grinding stone
After the original array is divided into plates or blocks, perform a rough grinding. Initially, to make the work surface as flat as possible, remove the protrusions and mounds, the stone is triturated with a cast-iron plate with a thin layer of abrasive material. First, a layer of coarse-grained sand, moistened with water, is applied, then a cast-iron slab with a pile laid over the pound rubs the sand layer on the surface to be treated.
To make the laborious process of roughing and grinding a stone more productive, you can use a homemade machine in the form of a heavy steel table on which a rotating cast-iron circle is installed, with a diameter of 60-70 cm. The cast iron surface is periodically wetted with water and abrasive, then the processed slab or blocks are laid paving stones face down. For sandstone, marble limestone, quartzite, fine granite or basalt dust can be used as a rough stone abrasive.
Solid and heavy rocks can only be sanded with a special tool. In industrial processing for grinding the granite cast iron chipped shot.
This depth of processing is sufficient for staircases, pavers or paving slabs. For details of finishing the facade and the basement part of the building, it is necessary to perform a finishing lapping.
Fine grinding of the stone with their own hands is carried out using special grinding powders with different grain sizes. Most often these are sizing powders of sintered silicon carbide or aluminum oxide. Grinding is performed with the help of electric grinders with nozzles made of thick rubber or plastic, on the surface of which an abrasive material is applied. The high speed of rotation of the nozzle of the angle grinder requires accurate, uniform and dosed pressing of the rotating tool against the surface, so as not to "push" the plane and cause local overheating.
In the process of fine grinding, a large amount of fine dust is released, so the surface is regularly wetted with water during processing, and masks and protective gloves are used to protect open areas of hands and face.
The process of giving a luster to the flattened plane of the stone is done with felt and sewn fabric circles with different polishing pastes. Dry polishing based on micron and submicron powders is practically not used because of the high consumption of abrasive material. For most stone products, the surfaces of which will be touched by hands in the future, before the final polishing of the surface they perform a chamfer - removal and rounding of all sharp edges and corners on the plate. After installing the finished product polished surface can be brought to light with the help of special chemical polish for the stone.
The processing of natural and artificial stone is considered to be one of the most promising directions for today, as along with the use of a large amount of plastic and metal, the demand for finishing from natural materials is growing at a faster rate. From the natural stone after the treatment, walls of houses are made, furniture and decorative elements are made.
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