Well construction under water with caissons

Well construction under water with caissons

Drilling a well is not an easy and costly process. It will be very sad if it gets too quickly out of order. That is why it is important to provide not only a quality pumping system, but also maintenance of the well itself. This includes the construction of a well under the water with caissons. They perform an important function to protect water in the well. What other types of well completion are there and what materials will be needed for this? This will be discussed in the article.

Necessity of well construction

During the development of the well, there are several tasks that require implementation. Among them we can distinguish:

  • purity of the source;
  • protection from various impurities;
  • possibility of equipment installation.

According to the sanitary norms, no bacteria from the E. coli or algae group should be present in the water well. This can adversely affect the quality of water, as well as the health of those who will use it. If the well is not adequately protected, then excreta of animals or plants that lead to percolation can occur. Heavy rains or melting snow in the spring lead to an increase in groundwater. Their entry into the well leads to disastrous results. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to provide a tight seal for the well head. For the uninterrupted supply of water to the house, it is necessary to have pumping equipment. In some cases, you have to mount two pumps. This requires a certain room near the well.

Options for the arrangement

Well construction requires basic skills and can be done by one's own hands. It should be borne in mind that if pumping equipment and pipes are at the wellhead, then they need to ensure good warmth so that in the winter there is no accident, which will require extensive intervention. Contrary to popular belief, warming for a well is required even in case it is not used in winter. Freezing of the ground can cause serious damage to the mine. Especially when it comes to the puddles, which easily deform the casing. The construction of a water well can be performed using:

  • pit;
  • adapter;
  • caisson.

Each of these options can be built independently, so it deserves a separate consideration.


The pit for the well is a small technological deepening, in which it is possible to place all the necessary nodes. It is not recommended to build a pit in areas where the groundwater is too close to the surface. It can not provide the required tightness. The pit is able to perfectly perform two of the three tasks in front of the protective structure for the well. If the groundwater is below 5 meters, then the pit will be an excellent option. For the construction of the pit, you can use:

  • wood;
  • brickwork;
  • well rings;
  • monolithic filling.

Each of the options has its pros and cons. Vulnerable is the seams between the individual components. They perfectly pass the water inside the pit. From this it follows that the tank and automation should be better located in a dry room or take care of their sealing in the pit. Otherwise, they will fail and will not be able to perform their functions. The construction of the pit should be postponed to late spring or early autumn. This is due to the condition in which the soil will be located. It should be quite soft to carry out excavation work.

Advice! Stop your choice on a stainless steel tank. It perfectly resists the impact of moisture and can serve a long time.

The construction of the pit begins with digging. Well, if the soil is rather viscous, not to crumble, but not too knocked down. Deepening is slightly below the freezing level of the soil. In some localities this figure is two meters away. Since the pit will have walls, it is necessary to take care of the additional width of the excavation for them. Usually make a stock of 40 cm in width and height. The size of the excavation is chosen arbitrarily, but it is necessary to freely place the equipment, and also is inside without discomfort if repairs are necessary. The bottom of the excavated hole is leveled and well trambuetsya. A layer of 10 cm is filled with sand and is leveled. It must also be well tampered with. The same layer is laid rubble of the middle fraction.

This can complete the formation of the bottom. There will not be anything wrong with the concrete day. However, it is necessary to take into account the behavior of the soil in a particular area. If the bottom is flooded below the freezing of the soil and it is known that there are no soils, then you can not worry. In this case, the concrete floor greatly simplifies the movement along the pit. On the walls and bottom (before pouring), you can put waterproofing in the form of a dense film. It will be an excellent barrier to moisture. The walls can be laid out with a brick, while the thickness of one brick will be enough. Someone prefers to make them from wooden shields. In this case, it is not superfluous to further insulate the insulation between the soil and the wood, which will prolong the service life and will further insulate the pit.

High strength has a monolithic pit wall. For their construction, it is necessary to take care of the waterproofing of the walls, which can be done with a film, as described above, or with a ruberoid. After this, the formwork is assembled, the metal crate is laid and the pouring is done. Before pouring it is necessary to lay sections of the sewer pipe so that the required communications can be output. The thickness of the walls can be made at 10 cm, which will be enough. At the end of a week, when the walls of the pit have already been seized, it is possible to make an improvised lid of wooden planks, so that nothing falls inside. Monolithic walls can be additionally insulated from the inside or outside. In addition to the contour, a pile of rubble is made to strengthen the entire structure. When the walls gain full strength, then you can build a full-fledged removable cover or hatch.


The adapter also copes well with well protection from negative influences. The use of the adapter will be especially important if the well is not used all year round. The objective of the device is to provide a pipe junction assembly from the deep pump to the pipes that go from the water well to the house. The adapter for the well has no restriction on the use with respect to the pipes. Both metal and plastic pipes that were used for casing the well are suitable. In this case, the pipes must be strong enough to hold the weight of the deep-well pump used. Most often, the adapter for the well consists of two separate modules. They are connected together by means of flaps or other elements that can be quickly unscrewed.

The advantage of using the adapter is:

  • low cost;
  • Simplicity of installation;
  • universality.

The installation of the adapter does not require the skills of working with a welding machine or other complex equipment. Everything is done quite simply and clearly. In some cases, the adapter may be located directly in the well at a depth below ground freezing. Of the disadvantages of the adapter for a well under the water can be identified the complexity of maintenance. To get to the site you will need to do earthwork. The adapter does not allow the accumulator and other components to be placed near the well. When choosing an adapter for a well under water, it is necessary to familiarize yourself well with what kind of pump capacity it will withstand. It is necessary to select one that will feel free at the pressure of the pump already purchased.

To install the adapter on the well for water, it will also be necessary to carry out land works. Digging a pit is so wide that it is convenient to be inside. Its form does not matter, because it will still be covered. The adapter should be below the freezing level of the ground, so as a result of freezing, it does not fail. Using a diamond or metal cutter in the casing, an opening is made below the freezing of the soil through which the feed pipe into the house will flow. A part of the adapter for the well is fixed into the hole by means of crimping nuts and rubber gaskets. The pump descends into the well and at the end of the pipe that rises from it, one part of the adapter is mounted. The second part of the adapter for the well is mounted on a discharge pipe into the house. Both modules are interconnected. Around the casing you can additionally lay the heater and close it tightly. After this, the backfilling and tamping of the pit around the well is performed.


Above, it was considered how it is possible to organize the arrangement of a well without a caisson. His installation is also worthy of attention. The caisson remains the best solution for the construction of a well under water. But it will take a long time to install it. In its structure, the caisson is a sealed chamber. It can be made of various materials, most often it is durable plastic. The caisson will not let rainwater or melt water to the well. Even if there is a flood, the caisson and the well head will remain dry. The height of the caisson for the well under the water is calculated in such a way that it can be placed below the freezing depth of the soil. Usually the size is two meters. For a comfortable stay inside while performing maintenance and repair work, the diameter of the caisson is taken from one meter.

Some types of caissons are made of metal, which is additionally coated with an anticorrosive compound or a layer of plastic that protects against rusting. This design is more reliable in terms of resistance to soil displacements. To ensure that the plastic caisson has the required strength, it is necessary to pour concrete walls around it. The installation of the caisson boils down to the fact that a pit is being excavated around the well, which is slightly larger than the caisson in size. The design is mounted in its place with the help of winches or a crane. In doing so, you must be careful not to damage the casing.

Inside the caisson, pumping equipment and other components are being installed. From the caisson a pipe is drawn, which leaves to the living room. In this case, all the holes are made leakproof so that moisture does not penetrate through the slits. The caisson for the well can be made independently, if there is material, as well as skills in working with the welding machine. Plant options are usually superior to homemade ones. Installation of a caisson for a well under water is also better to entrust to professionals. Thanks to this, the product is guaranteed. On the caisson stop the choice in the case when there is a desire to thoroughly and qualitatively design the well. The video about installing a caisson for a well on water can be seen below.


Apparently, the construction of a well under the water requires some effort, but the result will please for many years. The caisson will be the best way out when the perch is in close proximity. During installation, it will be necessary to pump the water out of the excavation to facilitate the task. In other cases, with seasonal operation and a metal casing, the adapter will be an excellent substitute.

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