The term "drainage" refers to the forced diversion of groundwater from a specified area or from its surface layer. Often, during the construction of buildings, there is a need for carrying out drainage measures. Such actions contribute not only to strengthening the foundation, but also the entire structure.
Conditions for drainage
Before carrying out any construction work, it is necessary to collect information about this site.
The information should be of the following type:
- peculiarity of the soil layer;
- features of the terrain;
- the average number of precipitation in a year;
- level of passage of groundwater;
- probability of evacuation at a moment of heavy rains or spring flood.
Drainage measures are carried out under such conditions:
- Groundwaters pass very close to the ground, within 0.5 m;
- the presence of clay or loamy soil substrates.
The presence of sedge, cattail and other moisture-loving plants on the territory, poor growth of cultural plantations give grounds for checking the height of groundwater and soil composition.
In this case, the appeal to specialists will be superfluous. They will find out exactly whether there is a need for such events.
In any case, draining is necessary where there is a basement or a basement.
The need for drainage
Due to periodic saturation of the soil with moisture, a permanent movement of the foundation can occur. As a result of such adverse effects, cracks in the walls, skewed doors and windows, the appearance of dampness and water in the basement are observed.
The drainage system is necessary wherever there is a damp soil, and puddles do not dry out on the territory for a long time. Excessive moisture also has a detrimental effect on the growth of any plant.
The need for carrying out drainage measures arises under the following circumstances:
- as a result of water logging;
- the removal of rain and groundwater from the basement, the lower floors, the foundation, and also the roof during the arrangement of the drainage system;
- growing in this place a large number of hygrophilous plants;
- location near the adjacent site of buildings with a deep foundation;
- the subsequent organization in the territory of artificial reservoirs.
Taking into account the design features of the drainage system, the types of drainage are distinguished:
Any of the presented varieties fulfills a certain purpose. For a complete disposal of unnecessary moisture, several types of drainage are usually used at the same time. To select the system as accurately as possible, calculate the amount and angle of the gradient of the drainage wells, the distance between the parts of the drainage system.
Point drainage is a system in which rainwater is received, followed by its flowing out of the drainage pipes and draining the liquid into a specially arranged sewage system.
Rainwater harvesting is carried out in the following places:
- at the entrances of houses;
- in parking lots,
- in underground passages and on pedestrian paths.
These structures are represented by small depressions, equipped with sturdy gratings.
The system of linear drainage is created for the purpose of removing rainwater, melted water or sewage of industrial importance.
Samples of such a device can be seen in the process of building roads, sidewalks, open areas. The drainage system of this type is represented by channels of insignificant depth, the base of which is treated with concrete or other material. These grooves are covered with strong gratings.
A sample of linear drainage
The dehumidification system of the internal type is used in the conditions of industrial enterprises. For this, pipes, trays, ladders are taken. These details are required to be characterized by:
- a stable base, not afraid of the effects of chemicals;
- be easy to care for;
- be allocated for a long operating period.
Underground drainages are carried out to get rid of groundwater of a high level.
The open drainage system, despite its external unattractiveness, is considered one of the most profitable from an economic standpoint. However, the exposed areas can be very dangerous from the side of injury.
To get a better understanding of the installation of the drainage system, you can watch the video:
Correctly installed drainage system allows any owner of the site to protect from flooding the basement, will put in order the swamped area, will allow the plants to be in suitable conditions.